Et systematisk review om summative evaluering og effekten på elevernes motivation for læring 2010

A systematic review of the impact of summative assessment and tests on students’ motivation for learning.

What did we find?  

  • After the introduction of the National Curriculum tests in England, low-achieving pupils had lower self-esteem than higher-achieving students; before the tests, there had been no correlation between self-esteem and achievement.  Low self-esteem reduces the chance of future effort and success.
  • High-stakes tests can result in transmission teaching and highly-structured activities.  This favours only students with certain learning styles.  These tests can become the rationale for all that is done in the classroom.
  • A strong emphasis on testing produces students with a strong extrinsic orientation towards grades and social status, i.e. a motivation towards performance rather than learning goals.  Students dislike high-stakes tests, showing high levels of test anxiety, and are aware that they give only a narrow view of what they can do.
  • Interest and effort are increased in classrooms which encourage self-regulated learning by providing students with an element of choice, control over challenge and opportunities to work collaboratively. 
  • Feedback that is ego-involving rather than task-involving is associated with an orientation to performance goals.

What are the implications?

  • There should be an emphasis on learning rather than performance goals by teachers and in professional development.  Teachers should avoid comparisons between students based on test results.
  • Teachers should develop students’ understanding of the goals of their learning, the criteria by which they are assessed and their ability to assess their own work, and encourage self-regulation in learning.
  • There should be a move towards testing individual students when teachers judge them to be ready. 
  • Schools should develop assessment policies that include both formative and summative assessment and ensure that the purpose of all assessment is clear to those involved.
  • Policies for school evaluation should ensure that it: covers a full range of subjects; includes moral, spiritual and cultural as well as cognitive aims; and includes a variety of teaching methods and learning outcomes.
  • For tracking national standards, only a sample of students needs to be tested.
  • Comparisons among schools in terms of test results should be avoided and the practice of basing targets only on test results should be ended.

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