Mindfulness for lærere i skolen og deres trivsel mm. Review 2014.


Det følgende er en sammenfatning og oversættelse af dele af publikationen Evidense for mindfulness: Impacts on the Wellbeing and Performance of School Staff. Kathrine Weare,2014. Du kan finde publikationen her.

Der er relativt få specifikke studier, der vedrører mindfulness for lærere, men antallet er voksende. Der er et specifikt review over feltet (Albrecht et al, 2012)

I september 2014 fandt Katherine Weare således 13 empiriske studier i fagfælle bedømte (peer reviewed)  tidsskrifter:  5 RCTs (randomiserede kontrollerede forsøg) , 7 kontrol studier, 3 før og efter studier,  og et kvalitativt studie.

Hun udfolder de empiriske studier således.

Indledningsvis hævder hun, at det er afgørende, at evidensen bygger på, at mindfulness interventionen foretages af autentiske og veluddannede mindfulness lærere, der har en daglig praksis med mindfulness meditation. (Der stilles i dag ret store krav til uddannelse indenfor for MBSR og MBCT, McCown et al, 2011. Kabat-Zinn 1996))

Gennemgangen af forskningen er struktureret efter følgende overskrifter:

  1. Mindfulness fysisk sundhed og trivsel
  2. Mindfulness stress og mental sundhed
  3. Mindfulness og positiv trivsel
  4. Følelsesmæssige og sociale kapaciteter
  5. Mindfulness og performance

Jeg har valgt at fokusere på punkt fire og fem her.

  • Mindfulness og følelsesmæssige og sociale kapaciteter.

Studierne viser ifølge Weare 2014:

  1. At læreres oplevelse af ‘self-efficasy’ har vist sig at være en vigtig beskyttende faktor i forhold til at modstå stress og opbygge modstandskraft.  (Reilly et al, 2014
  2. Mindfulness prasis kan øge bevidstheden om indre oplevelser, fremme refleksion, selvregulering og øge selvaccept (Baer, 2007)
  3. Graden af mindfulness har vist sig at korrelere positivt med graden af selvværd (Self-esteem) og selvaccept. (Thompson and Walz, 2008)
  4. Mindfulness praksis med dens basale fokus på ikke-dømmende accept af tanker og følelser ser ud til at føre til mere venlighed og medfølelse overfor en selv og dermed overfor andre. (Gilbert and Choden 2013).
  5. Undervisning handler i høj grad om at kunne kommunikere, at skabe relationer til elever, at motivere dem og at skabe et pro-socialt klasserum. (Greenberg and Jennings, 2009). Det er blevet påvist at mindfulness hjælper i forhold til at opbygge relationer, giver en følelse af forbundethed og interpersonel nærhed. (Brown and Kasser, 2005)
  6. Empiriske studier af mindfulness med lærere viser, hvordan mindfulness øger venlighed overfor sig selv og andre. Benn et al (2012) udførte et randomiseret kontrolleret forsøg for at undersøge effekten af et 5-ugers mindfulness træningsprogram for forældre og lærere til børn med særlige behov.   Alle deltagerne viste middel til store positive forbedringer imindfulness, bevidsthed, tålmodighed, empati,  tilgivelse af sig selv og andre,  en følelse af personlig vækst og reduktion i stress og angst. (Weare, 2014, s. 14).
  7. Følelsesregulering er en hjørnesten, en nøglefærdighed i evnen til at være social. Her inkluderes evnen til at kontrollere impulser, udskydelse af belønning, overvågning af opmærksomhed og på baggrund af dette træffe bedre beslutninger i forhold til hensigtsmæssig adfærd. Der er evidens for at minfulness styrker evnen til impulskontrol, hvilket bl.a. er undersøgt i forhold til ludomani, alkoholisme og stofmisbrug. (Peters et al, 2011). Mindfulness ser ud til – gennem MRT-scanning –  at udvikle de dele af hjernen der styrer følelsesregulering og impulsivitet. (Goldin and Gross, 2010). Arbejdshypotesen  er, at træningen i at “være med” i stedet for at reagere på det, der opleves, ser ud til at øge tidsspændet i de neurale netværk mellem impulsen til at reagere på en stimulus eller en tanke og reaktionen. (Ho¨lzel et al, 2011). Det giver tid til at træffe mere hensigtsmæssige beslutninger.

 

Et banebrydende RCT studie af Kemeny  et al (2012) om at kultivere følelsesmæssig balance viser en bred vifter af effekter på læreres følelsesmæssige og sociale kapaciteter. 82 kvindelige lærere blev testet før, umiddelbart efter og fem måneder efter deltagelsen i et træningsprogram.  De der deltog i træningsprogrammet (nogle udgjorde kontrolgruppen)  oplevede færre negative følelser, reducerede følelser af depression og en stigning i positive sindstilstande.  Helt usædvanligt målte studiet også på virkelige situationer, hvor lærere skulle udføre en stressende opgave (F.eks. Gennemgå en svær matematikopgave med tilhørere). Der blev målt lavere blodtryk ved de deltagere der havde mediteret mest gennem træningsprogrammet, og de der havde deltaget i træningsprogrammet kom hurtigere i ro efter udførelsen af den stressende opgave. Programmet viste også en stigning i medfølelse og mindre fjendtlighed i provokerende situationer.  (Weare, 2014, s. 16).

  • Mindfulness og performance

Udover høj følelsesmæssig og social intelligens har lærere også brug for at være klart tænkende og handlekraftige  beslutningstagere, for at kunne imødekomme de intellektuelle krav, der stilles til dem  i undervisningen.  Gennem skiftet fra forhastet og sikker  vurdering af situationer til en mindful åbensindet og ikke-dømmende fleksibel indstilling,  understøttes evnen til at til at tænke klart og handle indsigtsfuldt i stressede situation, i forhold til vurdering af øvelser m.m. (Weare, 2014).

Mindfulness interventioner har vist sig, at forbedre de såkaldt exekutive funktioner, der er en sammensætning af kognitive processer der inkluderer fokus, opmærksomhed, problemløsning, arbejdshukommese og vedvarende opmærksomhed (koncentration). (Elliot, 2003; Jha et al, 2010).

Mindfulnes er også blevet forbundet med bl.a. kreativ tænkning (Ostafin og Kassman, 2012), og divergent tænkning. (Colzato et al, 2012).

Skoler kan være (som vi f.eks. I Danmark) optaget af elevernes trivsel, men deres kerneydelse er  undervisning og læring. Det er derfor vigtigt at notere, at mindfulness har direkte indvirkning på undervisningen og elevernes læring. Flere programmer for elever er blevet forbundet direkte  med forbedring af elevernes læring og faglige resultater. Tilsvarende viser studier omhandlende lærere  indvirkning på adskillige sammenhængende aspekter af deres undervisningsperformance.  (Weare, 2014)

Napoli (2004) udførte et kvalitativt projekt med dybde interview af tre lærere. Mindfulness træningen hjalp dem med at undervise mindre fragmenteret og tilføje mere indsigt til læreprocessen, de blev bedre til at identificere begrebsmæssige nøglekompetencer i fagene og fokusere på dem i læreprocesserne. De følte sig mindre overvældede af læseplanerne og de mål, som de skule nå, men begyndt e at inddrage mindfulness i klasserummet og fokuserede mere på centeret opmærksomhed og elevernes engagement i læreprocesserne

Jennings (2011) gennemførte to pilotstudier af lærere, lærerstuderende under, der pegede påforbedringer i evnen til at give passende støtte til eleverne,  og lærerne gav udtryk for, at de var følte sig bedre i stand til at lede klassen og etablere støttende relationer til eleverne. Det blev fulgt op af et robust RCT studium i 2013 (Jennings et al, 2013), hvor 53 deltagere  i matchede par af lærere i forhold til alder, erfaring, skolemiljø m.m. blev udvalgt tilfældigt til deltagelse i interventionen eller en sammenlignings venteliste. Resultaterne viste forbedring i lærernes trivsel, fysiske helbredssymptomer, oplevelsen af “efficasy” i klasserummet, stress, udbrændthed og mindfulness (bevidst nærvær), alt sammen noget der blev associeret til lærernes udtryk for, hvad der forbedrer elevernes udbytte af undervisningen. (Weare, 2014).

Poulin et al (2007, 2008 ) gennemførte forsøg to år efter hinanden med lærerstuderende (Trainee teachers). Begge studier fandt signifikant stigning i selvrapporteret mindfulness, tilfredshed i livet, sundhed og “Teaching Self-efficasy”. De beskrev bl.a. , at de blev bedre til at udnytte “the teachable moment” og overvåge deres stressniveau og dets virkning på klassen.

 

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